The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) was formed in April 1959 in Soweto as a breakaway from the African National Congress (ANC). Influenced by the Africanist ideals of Kwame Nkrumah, the PAC promotes the return of the land to the indigenous people.
The Better Residents Association (BRA) – formerly known as the Bushbuckridge Residents Association – was formed in 2011 by the Bushbuckridge community under the leadership of Delta Mokwena and its founding leader, Cleopas Maunye.
The African People’s Convention (APC) was formed in September 2007 floor-crossing window when Themba Godi, the former deputy president of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) – launched the APC taking with him two of the PAC’s seats in the National Assembly.
The Azanian People’s Organisation (Azapo) preaches the philosophy of black emancipation and black consciousness – a philosophy popularised by the late Steve Biko, who was killed in police cells in 1977.